Szwarcbard was one of the most hard-working members of Oneg Shabbat. His manuscripts appear in about 170 documents in the Archive. He left his own writings and a selection of copies of other documents, including notes by Emanuel Ringelblum.
The Germans had planned the beginning of the second stage of liquidation of the ghetto for 18 January 1943. The goal was to deport about 8,000 people to Treblinka.
A teacher and a social activist. The Ringelblum Archive contains more than a dozen sketches he wrote about the Jewish community in Grodzisk Mazowiecki and selected locations in the Sochaczew county: Podkowa Leśna, Wiskitki and Sochaczew
Before the war, he was an owner of a roof tile factory. He donated a significant part of his income to the cause of supporting Jewish culture, such as the YIVO Institute. In the Warsaw Ghetto, he was an active contributor of Oneg Shabbat and an informal connection between Oneg Shabbat and Bund.
One of the closest associates of Oneg Shabbat, activist of Poale Zion-Left, co-founder of the Sztern (Star) sports club. Tytelman’s most important contribution to Oneg Shabbat was collecting the folklore of Warsaw Ghetto – jokes, anecdotes, popular street songs
Icchak Giterman had been a dedicated social activist and the director of Joint in Poland for many years. Ringelblum, who co-organized with him aid for Polish Jews displaced to Zbąszyń due to Polenaktion, wrote about him that he was a man of extraordinary thought, who had his own opinion about every issue
21 November marks the 119th birthday of Emanuel Ringelblum, historian and social activist, founder of Oneg Shabbat – an underground organization dedicated to the documentation of the fate of Jews under the German occupation.