Anna Majchrowska


28 Oct: Aleksander Landau

An engineer, managed a wood workshop in the Warsaw Ghetto – one of the forced labor companies working for the German army. Supported the Oneg Shabbat group and the Jewish Social Self-Help. During the Great Deportation to the Treblinka death camp, he offered shelter to intellectuals in his factory. During an attempt to escape occupied Poland, he fell prey to a Gestapo conspiracy.


31 Mar: Eliasz Gutkowski

Teacher, social and political activist, second secretary of the Ringelblum Archive, member of the Oneg Shabbat leadership. In the Warsaw Ghetto, he helped fellow Jews, despite difficulties with supporting his own wife and son. Co-edited accounts by defectors from the Chełmno nad Nerem and Sobibór extermination camps


05 Mar: Eliezer Lipe Bloch

One of Emanuel Ringelblum’s closest associates. His organizational skills were essential for the ‘Two and a half years of war’ – a great historical project which recorded the life of Polish Jews under German occupation


21 Feb: Alter Kacyzne

Jewish photographer, writer and columnist – murdered on 7 July 1941 during pogrom in Tarnopol. Emanuel Ringelblum dedicated one of his notes from the bunker to him


21 Feb: Szmuel Szajnkinder

Szmuel Szajnkinder was a footballer and sports journalist. In 1939, he participated in the defense of Warsaw, and later worked at the Jewish Social Self-Help Public Kitchen Central, where he met Emanuel Ringelblum


20 Feb: Mordechaj Szwarcbard

Szwarcbard was one of the most hard-working members of Oneg Shabbat. His manuscripts appear in about 170 documents in the Archive. He left his own writings and a selection of copies of other documents, including notes by Emanuel Ringelblum.